Resources by
Eye Condition

Eye Care Terminology

The glossary below can help you and your patients understand eye care terminology regarding treatment, medication, tests, and more!

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


0-9
20/20 vision – Normal visual acuity; upper number is the standard distance between the tested eye and the eye chart, and the lower number is the distance at which the tested eye can see the same standard-sized letters as a normal eye at 20 feet

Return to Top of Page


A
Abduction – Eye rotation away from the midline

Aberration – Blurred or distorted image quality resulting from the physical properties of an optical device (ie, lens)

Accommodation – The eye’s increase in optical power in order to maintain image clarity as objects are moved closer

Adduction – Eye rotation toward the midline

Adherence – Refers to the extent to which a patient follows a doctor’s treatment regimen without close supervision

Adjunctive therapy – Additive treatment or medication that enhances the benefit of another treatment or medication

Age-related macular degeneration – Group of conditions that include deterioration of the macula, resulting in a loss of sharp central vision; the most common cause of decreased vision after 50

Alacrima – Lack of tear production

Albinism – Lack of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin, which is usually associated with decreased visual acuity

Allergen – An antigen that creates an allergic or hypersensitivity response

Allergic conjunctivitis – Inflammation of the conjunctiva from hypersensitivity to allergens

ALT surgery – Argon laser trabeculoplasty; surgical procedure that uses a laser to create small burns in the trabecular meshwork to lower intraocular pressure

Amblyopia – “Lazy eye”; decreased vision in one or both eyes without anatomical defects detected in the retina or visual pathway

Amblyoscope – Instrument used in evaluation and treatment of strabismus and other binocularity problems

Angle-closure glaucoma – Rise in intraocular pressure due to aqueous fluid behind the iris being unable to pass through the pupil; patients with anatomically narrow angles are predisposed to this condition

Anopsia – Loss of vision, particularly to part of the visual field

Anterior chamber – Space between the iris and innermost corneal surface that is filled with fluid

Aphakia – Absence of the eye’s crystalline lens, such as after cataract extraction

Applanation tonometer – Instrument that flattens the cornea to measure intraocular pressure

Aqueous humor – Clear fluid that fills the space in the eye between the cornea and the lens; maintains intraocular pressure and provides nourishment to the cornea, iris, and lens

Aqueous outflow – Passage of aqueous fluid through the anterior chamber angle structures

Artificial tears – Eyedrops with similar consistency to natural tears to alleviate Dry Eye symptoms

Astigmatism – Refractive error that prevents the eye from focusing sharply, usually resulting from an abnormally shaped corneal surface; correctable by eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery

Return to Top of Page


B
Bacterial conjunctivitis – Inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a bacterial infection; usually contagious

Basal lamina – Innermost layer of the choroid, directly under the retina; damage to the basal lamina is responsible for many bleeding disorders of the macula area

Bell’s palsy – Condition in which muscles of the brows, eyelids, and mouth are paralyzed by damage to the 7th cranial nerve; may cause affected eyelids to remain open, resulting in corneal drying

BID – Twice daily

Bifocals – Eyeglasses that incorporate lenses of 2 different powers; allows for both near and far distance sight without changing eyewear

Binocular – Referring to or affecting both eyes

Bleb – Flap of tissue created to cover a sclero-corneal drainage channel during glaucoma surgery; enhances fluid outflow from the eye

Blepharitis – Inflammation of the eyelids; may be caused by infection or allergy

Blepharoconjunctivitis – Inflammation of the conjunctiva

Blepharoplasty – Any plastic surgery of the eyelids; often cosmetic

Blepharospasm – Sudden, involuntary spasm causing uncontrolled blinking and squeezing of the eyelid

Blind spot – Nonseeing area within every visual field; caused by absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve enters the eye

Blindness – Inability to see

Blink reflex – Periodic contraction of the eye muscles approximately every 5 seconds, causing the eyelid to close over the eye, spreading tears over the eye and limiting light entering the eye

Return to Top of Page


C
Capsulotomy – Incision to remove part of the lens capsule

Cat dander – The result of the normal shedding of cat hair or coat that can cause an allergic response in certain people

Cataracts – Opacity and cloudiness of the lens, preventing a clear image from being formed on the retina; removal may be necessary if vision is affected significantly; caused by age, trauma, or disease

Central retinal artery – First branch of the ophthalmic artery; provides nutrients to the inner two-thirds of the retina

Central retinal vein – Collects retinal venous blood drainage and exits through the optic nerve

Chalazion – Inflamed bump in the eyelid’s meibomian gland

Chemosis – Swelling of the conjunctiva

Choroid – Vascular layer of the eye between the retina and sclera, providing nutrients to the outer layers of the retina

Choroiditis – Inflammation of the choroid

Chronic Dry Eye – Corneal/conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production; keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Dry Eye syndrome

Ciliary body – Tissue in the eye that is involved in lens accommodation, intraocular pressure control, and producing the aqueous

Color blindness – Reduced ability to differentiate between colors, especially reds and greens; usually hereditary

Compliance – Refers to a patient following a doctor’s treatment regimen

Cone – Light-sensitive cell of the retina that allows for sharp visual acuity and color detection

Congenital glaucoma – High intraocular pressure, hazy corneas, and large eyes in children from newborn to 6 months old; developmental abnormalities prevent normal fluid drainage from the eye; requires surgical intervention

Conjunctiva – Mucous membrane covering the outer surface of the eyeball (except the cornea) and inside surface of the eyelids

Conjunctival hyperemia – Redness of the conjunctiva; associated with all types of conjunctivitis

Conjunctival sac – Pocket of conjunctiva between the upper eyelid and eyeball and lower eyelid and eyeball that permits the eyeball to rotate freely

Conjunctivitis – Inflammation of the conjunctiva; usually viral and can be contagious

Contact lens – Small disc worn on the cornea or sclera, providing visual correction of refractive errors

Convergence – Moving both eyes toward each other to maintain single binocular vision of an approaching object

Corectopia – Displacement of the pupil from its normal position

Cornea – Transparent front of the eye covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber; provides the bulk of the eye’s optical power

Corneal abrasion – Scraped area of the cornea accompanied by superficial tissue loss

Corneal apex – Central 3-5 mm where the cornea has the greatest curvature

Corneal edema – Hazy and swollen cornea

Corneal erosion – Loss of the outer layer of the cornea because it fails to adhere to the Bowman’s membrane

Corneal staining – Use of dye such as fluorescein to reveal corneal epithelial defects

Corneal transplant – Replacement of damaged or diseased cornea with donor corneal tissue

Corticosteroid – Steroid used to treat inflammatory and allergic diseases

Cup – Optic cup; depression in the center of the optic disc that normally occupies less than one-third of the disc diameter

Cup-to-disc ratio – Evaluates the progression of glaucoma by indicating the percentage of the disc occupied by the optic cup

Cupped disc – Abnormal enlargement of the optic cup, usually due to a long-term increase in intraocular pressure

Cylinder correction – Use of a lens that produces different refractive power in each meridian; used to correct astigmatism

Cystoid macular edema – Retinal swelling and cyst formation in the macular area, can result in temporary or permanent decrease in vision

Return to Top of Page


D
Dacryocystitis – Inflammation of the tear sac, often associated with poor tear drainage

Depth perception – Awareness of relative spatial location of objects; perception of nearness and farness

Diabetic macular edema – The leaking of retinal blood vessels into the macula in patients with diabetes, causing the macula to swell, which can temporarily or permanently decrease central vision

Diabetic retinopathy – Progressive retinal changes that accompany diabetes mellitus; this can progress from background retinopathy to proliferative retinopathy, which includes abnormal new blood vessels and fibrous tissue development

Dilation – Widening of the pupil

Diopter – Unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens

Diplopia – Perception of two images from one object; double vision

Disc – Optic disc; ocular end of the optic nerve

Dry Eye – Corneal/conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production

Dyscoria – Distorted shape of pupil

Return to Top of Page


E
Epicanthal fold – Vertical skin fold at each side of the nose; hides the caruncle; present in infants before nose bridge is developed

Epiphora – Overflow of tears down the face caused by poor tear drainage, excessive tearing, or outward turning of the lower eyelid

Erythema – Abnormal skin redness caused by capillary congestion under the skin

Esotropia – Eye misalignment in which one eye turns inward while the other stays fixed straight ahead

Evisceration – Procedure that removes the contents of the eyeball, leaving behind the sclera shell and, sometimes, the cornea; usually for reducing pain in a blind eye

Exotropia – Eye misalignment in which one eye turns outward while the other stays fixed straight ahead

Exposure keratitis – Corneal irritation or inflammation caused by corneal drying due to incomplete closure of the eyelid

External diseases – Diseases that affect the cornea, sclera, conjunctiva, or eyelids

Eye – Sense organ for sight

Eyelash – One of the stiff hairs at the margin on the eyelid

Eyelid – Structure covering the front of the eye that protects it, limits the light entering in, and distributes the tear film over the corneal surface

Eyewall – The sclera and the cornea

Return to Top of Page


F
Farsightedness – Refractive error that allows the eye to see clearly at a distance, but close-up images are blurred; hyperopia

Femtosecond laser – Short-pulse laser that is used to create corneal flaps in refractive surgery

Floaters – Particles that float in the vitreous, casting shadows on the retina and appearing as spots

Fluorescein – Colored dye that illuminates; used on the cornea to identify damage

Focal point – Position on the principal axis of a lens system where parallel light rays are brought to a point of focus

Follicles – Tiny elevations on the undersurface of the eyelids; associated with viral conjunctival inflammation

Foreign body sensation – The feeling of something in the eye; can be caused by an actual foreign body in the eye or by various damage or conditions

Fovea – The central part of the macula that produces the sharpest vision

Fundus – Interior posterior surface of the eyeball which includes the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole

Return to Top of Page


G
Generic drug – A drug that has gone off patent and is produced by any number of manufacturers; according to the FDA, generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs and are the same dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and intended use

Gerontoxon – Degenerative change that produces a white ring-shaped deposit of fat near the peripheral edge of the cornea; typically in patients over 60

Glare test – Clinical test that determines the extent to which a bright light shined in the eye changes visual acuity; evaluates the degree of visual impairment caused by a cataract

Glaucoma – Group of ocular diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in optic nerve damage, affecting visual field; common cause of preventable vision loss

Globe – The eyeball; a sensory organ that uses light to transmit visual information to the brain; 3 major layers in the globe include corneo-sclero, uvea, and retina

Goblet cell – Large mucous glands in the conjunctiva that secrete mucin, a component of precorneal tear film; can be damaged in Dry Eye syndrome

Gonioscopy – Test that examines the anterior chamber angle structures through a special lens with a slit lamp

Goniotomy – Surgical procedure that is often used to treat congenital glaucoma; it consists of an incision in the trabecular meshwork

Graves disease – Symptoms of the eye that may result with excessive thyroid-related concentration, including eyelid retraction, eyelid lag, corneal drying, and optic nerve inflammation

Return to Top of Page


H
Halo – Hazy ring seen around lights; can be a sign of a refractive error or optical defect such as cataract

Herpes keratitis – Eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Results in inflammation and ulcers

Heterochromia of the iris – Having a different color iris in each eye

Histamine – Chemical that creates an allergic or inflammatory response

Hordeolum – Acute infection of oil glands of the eyelid; externally, also known as a stye; internally (in the meibomian glands), also known as a chalazion, if chronic

Hyperemia – Clinical sign; increased blood flow; usually refers to eye redness due to increased blood flow to the conjunctival blood vessels

Hyperopia – Refractive error in which an underpowered eye is too short for its optical power; farsightedness

Hypertropia – Functional defect in which one eye deviates upward while the other remains straight and fixates normally

Hyphema – Clinical sign; blood in the anterior chamber, often following blunt trauma to the eyeball

Hypotropia – Functional defect in which one eye deviates downward while the other remains straight and fixates normally

Return to Top of Page


I
Intraocular lens – Lens that may be surgically implanted to replace the eye’s natural lens

Intraocular pressure (IOP) – The pressure of fluid within the eye; elevated IOP is a treatable risk factor for glaucoma

Iridectomy – Removal of a portion of iris tissue

Iris – Pigmented tissue behind the cornea that gives the eye its color and allows light to enter the eye by controlling the size of the pupillary opening; part of the uveal (middle) layer of the eye

Iritis – Inflammation of the iris, causing pain, tearing, blurring, small pupil, and red congested eye

Isopia – Equal vision in both eyes

Return to Top of Page


J

Return to Top of Page


K
Keratectomy – Surgical removal of corneal tissue

Keratitis – Corneal inflammation; can be caused by a variety of infections, injuries, and unknown causes

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca – Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production; Dry Eye syndrome

Keratolysis – Corneal melt; superficial corneal layers that "melt" away; often associated with severe inflammation, Dry Eye, or rheumatoid arthritis

Keratoplasty – Surgical procedure on the cornea that usually refers to a corneal graft (replacing damaged corneal tissue with donor tissue)

Keratotomy – Any incision into the cornea (surgical procedure)

Return to Top of Page


L
Lacrimal gland – Almond-shaped gland located above the eyeball in the upper outer region that produces tears

Lacrimation – Tear production; crying

Laser – Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; a high-energy light source that can cut, burn, or dissolve tissues for clinical procedures; used in many eye care procedures such as refractive surgery, treatment of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, and removal of trabecular meshwork in glaucoma patients

LASIKLAser in Sltu Keratomileusis; refractive surgery in which the cornea is reshaped to change its optical power; corrects myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism

Legal blindness – Visual acuity of 20/200 or less, or visual field reduction to 20 degrees or less (in the better eye)

Lens – Any transparent material (often glass) that can bend light rays predictably

Lensectomy – Removal of the eye’s natural lens

Limbus – Area where the cornea joins the sclera and the bulbar conjunctiva attaches to the eyeball

Low-tension glaucoma – Normal-tension glaucoma; type of open-angle glaucoma in which a patient exhibits signs such as progressive disc cupping and visual field loss, but with normal intraocular pressure

Return to Top of Page


M
Macropsia – Distorted vision in which objects appear larger than normal

Macula – Central area of the retina; provides central vision used for reading and seeing fine detail

Macular degeneration – Group of conditions that include degeneration of the macula; results in loss of sharp central vision

Macular edema – Retinal swelling and cyst formation in the macula; can temporarily or permanently decrease vision

Maculopathy – Abnormality of the macula

Madarosis – Loss of eyelashes often caused by chronic blepharitis

Magnification – Increased image size created through the use of optical devices

Meibomian gland – Oil gland in the eyelid tissue that secretes the outer portion of the tear film; prevents rapid tear evaporation and tear overflow

Microbial keratitis – Corneal infection from overuse of contact lenses; caused by microorganisms

mm Hg – Millimeters of mercury; units used to measure intraocular pressure

Moll glands – Sweat glands near the eyelash follicles; infection can cause a stye

Monocular – Referring to one eye

Myopia – Refractive error caused by an overpowered eye, which has too much optical power for its length; nearsightedness

Return to Top of Page


N
Narrow-angle glaucoma – Rise in intraocular pressure caused by narrow anterior chamber angles that prevent aqueous drainage

Nasolacrimal duct – Tear drainage channel from the lacrimal sac to the mucous membrane of the nose

NDC number – US National Drug Code; a standard code used to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologicals

Nearsightedness – Refractive error that allows the eye to see close-up objects clearly, but distance vision is blurred; myopia

Neurotrophic keratitis – Corneal inflammation resulting from trauma or damage to corneal nerves; leads to cornea anesthesia

Night blindness – Poor visual adaptation to the dark, resulting in reduced vision in low light; usually indicates defect in retinal rods

Normal-tension glaucoma – See low-tension glaucoma

Nystagmus – A functional defect in which the patient displays involuntary oscillating eye movements that are faster in one direction than the other

Return to Top of Page


O
Ocular biometry – Test that measures distance between various ocular structures (usually with A-scan or B-scan ultrasound instruments)

Ocular hypertension – Elevated IOP, but with no evidence of optic disc or visual field changes; potential (but not definite) glaucoma suspect

Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©) – A valid and reliable instrument of 12 questions for measuring Dry Eye Disease and its effect on vision-related function

OD – Right eye

Open-angle glaucoma – The most common type of glaucoma caused by the slowing of normal aqueous outflow from the eye; can result in gradual, irreversible vision loss

Ophthalmic medical assistant – Certified allied health professional in ophthalmology; three levels are certified by JCAHPO®: COA®, COT®, and COMT®

Ophthalmologist – Doctor of medicine (MD) or doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) specializing in diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases and disorders.

Ophthalmology – Medical specialty dealing with function and diseases of the eye

Ophthalmoscopy – Use of an ophthalmoscope to examine the internal structures of the eye

Optic nerve – The second cranial nerve that is the largest sensory nerve of the eye; carries sight information from the retina to the brain for processing

Optic neuropathy – Abnormality or degeneration of the optic nerve, not due to inflammation

Optician – Vision care professional who makes and adjusts optical aids such as eyeglasses

Optometrist – Doctor of optometry (OD) who specializes in vision problems and treatments

Optometry – Vision care specialty that deals with the detection and management of ocular disease

Orbit – Socket; cranial cavity of the skull that contains the eyeball

OS – Left eye

Outflow (aqueous) – Passage of aqueous fluid out of the eye through the anterior chamber angles

Return to Top of Page


P
Pachymetry – Test to measure corneal thickness

Palpebral fascia – Fibrous membrane that forms a protective layer between the eyelid and the bony orbit (socket)

Perennial allergies – Also known as year-round allergies, these are usually due to indoor allergies such as dust mites or mold

Periocular – Area surrounding the eyeball

Peripheral vision – Side vision, created by stimuli falling on retinal areas that are far from the macula

Phacoemulsification – Surgical procedure that uses ultrasound vibration to break up a cataract, making it easy to suction out of the eye

Phakic – Refers to an eye that has its natural lens

Photophobia – Abnormal sensitivity to light; associated with discomfort and excessive tearing; often due to iritis or keratitis

Photopsia – Sensation of light or flashes from mechanical or electrical irritation of the retina (not from a light stimulus)

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) – Refractive surgery that reshapes the corneal curvature with a laser after the surface of the cornea has been removed

Pink eye – Conjunctivitis; inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually viral in origin; symptoms include discharge, grittiness, redness, and swelling

Pollen – Microspores of seed plants that can induce allergic or hypersensitivity reactions in some people

Posterior capsular opacification – After cataract surgery, the rear lens capsule can cloud over; needs removal to improve vision

Posterior chamber – Space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous

Presbyopia – Loss of power of accommodation due to the decline in elasticity of the crystalline lens or ciliary muscle function (occurs with aging)

Primary open-angle glaucoma – The most common type of glaucoma caused by the slowing of normal aqueous outflow from the eye; can result in gradual vision loss

PRN – As needed (as medication dosing)

Pruritus – Itching

Pseudoexfoliation – Unknown deposits appearing on the lens surfaces and other ocular structures; often associated with high intraocular pressure

Ptosis – Sagging upper eyelid

Puff tonometer – Device that measures intraocular pressure by blowing a puff of air against the cornea to flatten it

Punctal plug – Plastic plug inserted into the punctum to prevent tear drainage, preserving tears to keep the eye moist

Punctate keratitis – Corneal disease characterized by small corneal lesions of unknown origin

Pupil – Black circular opening in the center of the iris that varies in size to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye

Return to Top of Page


Q
QD – Once daily

QID – Four times daily

Return to Top of Page


R
Refraction – Bending of light as it travels from a medium of one density to another medium of another density

Refractive error – Optical defect in an unaccommodating eye; correctible with surgery, eyeglasses, or contact lenses

Retina – Light-sensitive tissue in the eye that converts images into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain via the optic nerve to interpret as vision

Retinal detachment – Separation of the retina from the underlying pigment epithelium; usually caused by a retinal tear that leaks fluid from the vitreous and separates the retina

Retinal vein occlusion – Blockage of blood flow through the central retinal vein, causing a decrease in vision

Retinitis – Inflammation of the retina

Retinoblastoma – Malignant tumor that develops from retinal visual cells

Retinopathy – Any noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina

Retinoscopy – Test that measures the eye’s refractive error

Rod – Specialized retina cell that is a light-sensitive receptor in low-light levels

Return to Top of Page


S
Schirmer test – Measures tear production with filter paper strips

Schlemm’s canal – Channel in the corneo-scleral junction that carries aqueous fluid from the anterior chamber to the bloodstream

Sclera – Opaque protective outer layer of the eye (“the white”) that connects to the cornea and the sheath of the optic nerve

Scleritis – Inflammation of the sclera, often painful

Seasonal allergies – Allergies, such as hay fever, that are seasonal in nature (eg, springtime or fall)

Sjögren syndrome – Chronic autoimmune disease often characterized by dry eyes, dry mouth, and arthritis

Slit lamp – Microscope used to examine the eye; shows the cornea, lens, and clear fluids and membranes in layered detail

SLT surgery – Surgical procedure in which a laser is used on the trabecular meshwork to increase aqueous outflow, reducing intraocular pressure

Snellen chart – Lettered chart for measuring visual acuity; usually tested at 20 feet (hence, 20/20 vision)

Somnolence – Sleepiness

Strabismus – Eye misalignment caused by extraocular muscle imbalance

Stye – Acute pustular infection of oil glands located in an eyelash follicle

Return to Top of Page


T
Tachyphylaxis – Rapid decrease in response to a given dose of a drug after repetitive administration

Tarsal gland – Oil gland within the eyelid tissue; secretes the outer portion of the tear film to prevent tear evaporation and overflow

Tear breakup time – Tests the time between a blink and the development of a dry spot on the ocular surface; less than 10 seconds is abnormal

Tear duct – Tear drainage channel from the lacrimal sac to the mucous membrane of the nose

Tears – Fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands to keep the conjunctiva and cornea moist

Temporal pallor – Loss of pinkish tone in the optic disc; usually indicates optic nerve damage

TID – Three times daily

Tonometer – Instrument that measures intraocular pressure; each type of tonometer measures pressure through slightly different means

Toric lens – An optical device with a cylindrical component to correct astigmatism

Trabecular meshwork – Structure inside the eye at the iris-scleral junction of the anterior chamber angle that filters aqueous fluid and controls its exit from the eye through Schlemm’s canal

Trabeculectomy – Surgical procedure to remove part of the trabecular meshwork to increase the outflow of aqueous fluid to treat elevated intraocular pressure

Trabeculoplasty – Surgical procedure that uses a laser to burn part of the trabecular meshwork to increase outflow of aqueous fluid to treat elevated intraocular pressure

Trachoma – Severe, chronic, and contagious infection of the eyelid and cornea caused by a virus; the leading cause of blindness in the world

Trifocal – Optical device that incorporates lenses of 3 different powers

Triplopia – Ocular defect that causes images to appear in triplicate; often caused by an early cataract

Return to Top of Page


U
Ultraviolet light – Light with wavelengths between 250 and 400 nanometers; invisible to the naked eye

Uvea – Pigmented vascular layers of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choroid) that contain most of the eye’s blood vessels

Uveitis – Inflammation of any of the structures of the uvea (iris, ciliary body, or choroid)

Return to Top of Page


V
Vision – Ability of the eye to receive and transmit light images to the brain, where they are interpreted; the ability to see

Visual acuity – Measurement that assesses the eye’s ability to distinguish details and shape

Visual field – The full area visible to the eye when fixated straight ahead; measured in degrees

Vitrectomy – Surgical removal of the vitreous

Vitreous – Transparent gelatinous mass that fills the back two-thirds of the eyeball between the lens and retina

Return to Top of Page


W

Return to Top of Page


X

Return to Top of Page


Y
Year-round allergies – Also known as perennial allergies, these are usually due to indoor allergies such as dust mites or mold

Return to Top of Page


Z

Return to Top of Page


Important Safety Information

Click the links to go to each product's Indication and Important Safety Information.


 

ACUVAIL® (ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution) 0.45% Important Information

INDICATION
ACUVAIL® ophthalmic solution is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory indicated for the treatment of pain and inflammation following cataract surgery.

Important Safety Information

CONTRAINDICATIONS
ACUVAIL® solution is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients in the formulation.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Delayed Healing
Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may slow or delay healing. Topical corticosteroids are also known to slow or delay healing. Concomitant use of topical NSAIDs and topical steroids may increase the potential for healing problems.

Potential for Cross-Sensitivity
There is the potential for cross-sensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid, phenylacetic acid derivatives, and other NSAIDs.

Increased Bleeding Time
With some NSAIDs, there exists the potential for increased bleeding time due to interference with thrombocyte aggregation. There have been reports that ocularly applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause increased bleeding of ocular tissues (including hyphemas) in conjunction with ocular surgery.

Corneal Effects
Use of topical NSAIDs may result in keratitis. In some susceptible patients, continued use of topical NSAIDs may result in epithelial breakdown, corneal thinning, corneal erosion, corneal ulceration, or corneal perforation. These events may be sight threatening.

Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs suggests that patients with complicated ocular surgeries, corneal denervation, corneal epithelial defects, diabetes mellitus, ocular surface diseases (eg, dry eye syndrome), rheumatoid arthritis, or repeat ocular surgeries within a short period of time may be at increased risk for corneal adverse events, which may become sight threatening.

Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs also suggests that use more than 1 day prior to surgery or use beyond 14 days postsurgery may increase patient risk for the occurrence and severity of corneal adverse events.

ACUVAIL® should not be administered while wearing contact lenses.

Adverse Reactions
The most common adverse events were reported in 1% to 6% of patients and included increased intraocular pressure, conjunctival hyperemia and/or hemorrhage, corneal edema, ocular pain, headache, tearing, and vision blurred. Some of these events may be the consequence of the cataract surgical procedure.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



ALPHAGAN® P (brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution) 0.1% and 0.15% Important Information

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ALPHAGAN® P (brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution) 0.1% or 0.15% is an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Neonates and Infants (under the age of 2 years): ALPHAGAN® P is contraindicated in neonates and infants (under the age of 2 years).

Hypersensitivity Reactions: ALPHAGAN® P is contraindicated in patients who have exhibited a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of this medication in the past.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Potentiation of Vascular Insufficiency: ALPHAGAN® P may potentiate syndromes associated with vascular insufficiency. ALPHAGAN® P should be used with caution in patients with depression, cerebral or coronary insufficiency, Raynaud's phenomenon, orthostatic hypotension, or thromboangiitis obliterans.

Severe Cardiovascular Disease: Although brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution had minimal effect on the blood pressure of patients in clinical studies, caution should be exercised in treating patients with severe cardiovascular disease.

Contamination of Topical Ophthalmic Products After Use: There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Antihypertensives/Cardiac Glycosides: Because ALPHAGAN® P may reduce blood pressure, caution in using drugs such as antihypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides with ALPHAGAN® P is advised.

CNS Depressants: Although specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with ALPHAGAN® P, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics) should be considered.

Tricyclic Antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to blunt the hypotensive effect of systemic clonidine. It is not known whether the concurrent use of these agents with ALPHAGAN® P in humans can lead to resulting interference with the IOP-lowering effect. Caution is advised in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants, which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors may theoretically interfere with the metabolism of brimonidine and potentially result in an increased systemic side effect such as hypotension. Caution is advised in patients taking MAO inhibitors, which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
Adverse reactions occurring in approximately 10% to 20% of the subjects receiving brimonidine ophthalmic solution (0.1% to 0.2%) included: allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival hyperemia, and eye pruritus. Adverse reactions occurring in approximately 5% to 9% included: burning sensation, conjunctival folliculosis, hypertension, ocular allergic reaction, oral dryness, and visual disturbance.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



COMBIGAN® (brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) 0.2%/0.5% Important Information

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: COMBIGAN® (brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution) 0.2%/0.5% is an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist with a beta‐adrenergic receptor inhibitor indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who require adjunctive or replacement therapy due to inadequately controlled IOP; the IOP‐lowering of COMBIGAN® dosed twice a day was slightly less than that seen with the concomitant administration of 0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution dosed twice a day and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution dosed three times per day.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
CONTRAINDICATIONS: COMBIGAN® is contraindicated in patients with reactive airway disease including bronchial asthma; a history of bronchial asthma; severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; in patients with sinus bradycardia; second or third degree atrioventricular block; overt cardiac failure; in neonates and infants (aged 2 years and younger); in patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of COMBIGAN® in the past.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS: COMBIGAN® contains timolol maleate. COMBIGAN® is administered topically, but can be absorbed systemically. The adverse reactions with systemic administration of beta‐adrenergic blocking agents may occur with topical use (eg, severe respiratory reactions and cardiac reactions, including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma, and rarely death in association with cardiac failure, have been reported with systemic or ophthalmic administration of timolol maleate). Ophthalmic beta-blockers may impair compensatory tachycardia and increase risk of hypotension.

Sympathetic stimulation may be essential to support the circulation in patients with diminished myocardial contractility, and its inhibition by beta‐adrenergic receptor blockade may precipitate more severe failure. In patients with no history of cardiac failure, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over time can lead to cardiac failure. Discontinue COMBIGAN® at the first sign or symptom of cardiac failure.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (eg, chronic bronchitis, emphysema) of mild or moderate severity, bronchospastic disease, or a history of bronchospastic disease should not receive beta‐blocking agents, including COMBIGAN®.

COMBIGAN® may potentiate syndromes associated with vascular insufficiency. Use caution in patients with depression, cerebral or coronary insufficiency, Raynaud’s phenomenon, orthostatic hypotension, or thromboangiitis obliterans.

Patients taking beta-blockers with a history of atopy or severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic challenge with such allergens. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat anaphylactic reactions.

Beta‐adrenergic blockade can potentiate muscle weakness with myasthenic symptoms (eg, diplopia, ptosis, and generalized weakness). Although rare, timolol can increase muscle weakness in some patients with myasthenia gravis or myasthenic symptoms.

Beta‐adrenergic receptor blocking agents may mask the signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycemia and clinical signs (eg, tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Use caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia or in diabetic patients (especially those with labile diabetes) who are receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Carefully manage patients who may develop thyrotoxicosis to avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta‐adrenergic blocking agents that might precipitate a thyroid storm.

Ocular hypersensitivity has occurred with brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solutions 0.2% (eg, increase in IOP). Some authorities recommend gradual withdrawal of beta‐adrenergic receptor blocking agents due to impairment of beta-adrenergically mediated reflexes during surgery. If necessary during surgery, the effects of beta‐adrenergic blocking agents may be reversed by sufficient doses of adrenergic agonists.

ADVERSE REACTIONS: The most frequent reactions with COMBIGAN® in about 5% to 15% of patients included: allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival folliculosis, conjunctival hyperemia, eye pruritus, ocular burning, and stinging.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: COMBIGAN® may reduce blood pressure. Use caution in patients on antihypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides.

Observe patients receiving a beta‐adrenergic blocking agent either orally or intravenously and COMBIGAN® for additive effects of beta‐blockade, both systemic and on intraocular pressure. Concomitant use of two topical beta‐adrenergic blocking agents is not recommended.

Use caution in the co‐administration of beta‐adrenergic blocking agents (eg, COMBIGAN®) and oral or intravenous calcium antagonists due to possible atrioventricular conduction disturbances, left ventricular failure, and hypotension. Avoid co-administration in patients with impaired cardiac function.

Observe patients closely when a beta‐blocker is administered to patients receiving catecholamine‐depleting drugs (eg, reserpine) due to possible additive effects and the production of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia, which may result in vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.

Specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with COMBIGAN®, but consider the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics).

Concomitant use of beta‐adrenergic blocking agents with digitalis and calcium antagonists may have additive effects in prolonging atrioventricular conduction time.

Potentiated systemic beta‐blockade (eg, decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported with combined use of CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, quinidine, SSRIs) and timolol.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can blunt the hypotensive effect of systemic clonidine. It is not known whether the concurrent use of TCAs with COMBIGAN® in humans can interfere with the IOP‐lowering effect. Caution is advised in patients taking TCAs, which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors may theoretically interfere with the metabolism of brimonidine and potentially increase systemic side effects such as hypotension. Use caution in patients taking MAO inhibitors, which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



LASTACAFT® (alcaftadine ophthalmic solution) 0.25% Important Information

INDICATIONS AND USAGE
LASTACAFT® (alcaftadine ophthalmic solution) 0.25% is an H1 histamine receptor antagonist indicated for the prevention of itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

CONTRAINDICATIONS
LASTACAFT® is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any component in the product.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
To minimize eye injury and contaminating the dropper tip and solution, care should be taken not to touch the eyelids or surrounding areas with the dropper tip of the bottle. Keep bottle tightly closed when not in use.

Patients should be advised not to wear a contact lens if their eye is red.

LASTACAFT® should not be used to treat contact lens-related irritation.

Remove contact lenses prior to instillation of LASTACAFT®. The preservative in LASTACAFT®, benzalkonium chloride, may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Lenses may be reinserted after 10 minutes following administration of LASTACAFT®.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
The most frequent ocular adverse reactions, occurring in < 4% of LASTACAFT® treated eyes, were eye irritation, burning and/or stinging upon instillation, eye redness, and eye pruritus.

The most frequent non-ocular adverse reactions, occurring in < 3% of subjects with LASTACAFT® treated eyes, were nasopharyngitis and headache. Some of these events were similar to the underlying disease being studied.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



LATISSE® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% Important Information

Indication
LATISSE® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% is indicated to treat hypotrichosis of the eyelashes by increasing their growth, including length, thickness, and darkness.

Important Safety Information

Contraindications: LATISSE® is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to bimatoprost or to any of the ingredients.

Warnings and Precautions: In patients using LUMIGAN® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) or other prostaglandin analogs for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), the concomitant use of LATISSE® may interfere with the desired reduction in IOP. Patients using prostaglandin analogs including LUMIGAN® for IOP reduction should only use LATISSE® after consulting with their physician and should be monitored for changes to their intraocular pressure.

Increased iris pigmentation has occurred when bimatoprost solution was administered. Patients should be advised about the potential for increased brown iris pigmentation, which is likely to be permanent.

Bimatoprost has been reported to cause pigment changes (darkening) to periorbital pigmented tissues and eyelashes. The pigmentation is expected to increase as long as bimatoprost is administered, but has been reported to be reversible upon discontinuation of bimatoprost in most patients.

There is the potential for hair growth to occur in areas where LATISSE® solution comes in repeated contact with skin surfaces. Apply LATISSE® only to the skin of the upper eyelid margin at the base of the eyelashes.

LATISSE® solution should be used with caution in patients with active intraocular inflammation (eg, uveitis) because the inflammation may be exacerbated. LATISSE® should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.

Adverse Reactions: The most frequently reported adverse reactions were eye pruritus, conjunctival hyperemia, skin hyperpigmentation, ocular irritation, dry eye symptoms, and periorbital erythema. These reactions occurred in less than 4% of patients.

Postmarketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of LATISSE®: dry skin of the eyelid and/or periocular area, eye swelling, eyelid edema, hypersensitivity (local allergic reactions), lacrimation increased, madarosis and trichorrhexis (temporary loss of a few eyelashes to loss of sections of eyelashes, and temporary eyelash breakage, respectively), periorbital and lid changes associated with a deepening of the eyelid sulcus, rash (including macular and erythematous), skin discoloration (periorbital), and vision blurred.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



LUMIGAN® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% Important Information

INDICATION
LUMIGAN® 0.01% (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
CONTRAINDICATIONS
LUMIGAN® 0.01% is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to bimatoprost or to any of the ingredients.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Pigmentation
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution has been reported to cause changes to pigmented tissues. The most frequently reported changes have been increased pigmentation of the iris, periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes. Pigmentation is expected to increase as long as bimatoprost is administered. After discontinuation of bimatoprost, pigmentation of the iris is likely to be permanent, while pigmentation of the periorbital tissue and eyelash changes have been reported to be reversible in some patients. Patients who receive treatment should be informed of the possibility of increased pigmentation. The long term effects of increased pigmentation are not known. Iris color change may not be noticeable for several months to years. While treatment with LUMIGAN® 0.01% can be continued in patients who develop noticeably increased iris pigmentation, these patients should be examined regularly.

Eyelash Changes
LUMIGAN® 0.01% may gradually change eyelashes and vellus hair in the treated eye. These changes include increased length, thickness, and number of lashes. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.

Intraocular Inflammation
Prostaglandin analogs, including bimatoprost, have been reported to cause intraocular inflammation. In addition, because these products may exacerbate inflammation, caution should be used in patients with active intraocular inflammation (e.g., uveitis).

Macular Edema
Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, has been reported during treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solution. LUMIGAN® 0.01% should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.

Use with Contact Lenses
LUMIGAN® 0.01% contains benzalkonium chloride, which may be absorbed by and cause discoloration of soft contact lenses. Contact lenses should be removed prior to instillation of LUMIGAN® 0.01% and may be reinserted 15 minutes following its administration.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
In a 12-month clinical study with bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01%, the most common adverse reaction was conjunctival hyperemia (31%). Approximately 1.6% of patients discontinued therapy due to conjunctival hyperemia. Other adverse drug reactions (reported in 1 to 4% of patients) with LUMIGAN® 0.01% in this study included conjunctival edema, conjunctival hemorrhage, eye irritation, eye pain, eye pruritus, erythema of eyelid, eyelids pruritus, growth of eyelashes, hypertrichosis, instillation site irritation, punctate keratitis, skin hyperpigmentation, vision blurred, and visual acuity reduced.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pediatric Use
Use in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years is not recommended because of potential safety concerns related to increased pigmentation following long-term chronic use.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



RESTASIS MULTIDOSE® (cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion) 0.05% Important Information

Indications and Usage
RESTASIS MULTIDOSE® ophthalmic emulsion is indicated to increase tear production in patients whose tear production is presumed to be suppressed due to ocular inflammation associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Increased tear production was not seen in patients currently taking topical anti-inflammatory drugs or using punctal plugs.

Important Safety Information

Contraindications
RESTASIS MULTIDOSE® is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients in the formulation.

Warnings and Precautions
Potential for Eye Injury and Contamination: Be careful not to touch the bottle tip to your eye or other surfaces to avoid potential for eye injury and contamination.

Use With Contact Lenses: RESTASIS MULTIDOSE® should not be administered while wearing contact lenses. If contact lenses are worn, they should be removed prior to the administration of the emulsion. Lenses may be reinserted 15 minutes following administration of RESTASIS MULTIDOSE® ophthalmic emulsion.

Adverse Reactions
In clinical trials, the most common adverse reaction following the use of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% was ocular burning (upon instillation)—17%. Other reactions reported in 1% to 5% of patients included conjunctival hyperemia, discharge, epiphora, eye pain, foreign body sensation, pruritus, stinging, and visual disturbance (most often blurring).

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.



ZYMAXID® (gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution) 0.5% Important Information

INDICATION
ZYMAXID® is indicated for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms:

Aerobic gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis group*, Streptococcus oralis*, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Aerobic gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae.

*Efficacy for these organisms were studied in fewer than 10 infections.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
CONTRAINDICATIONS
ZYMAXID® is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to gatifloxacin, to other quinolones, or to any of the components in this medication.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Hypersensitivity
Some patients receiving topical ophthalmic gatifloxacin experienced hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reactions, angioedema (including pharyngeal, laryngeal, or facial edema), dyspnea, urticaria, and itching, even following a single dose. Rare cases of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome were reported in association with topical ophthalmic gatifloxacin use. If an allergic reaction to gatifloxacin occurs, discontinue the drug.

Growth of Resistant Organisms with Prolonged Use
Prolonged use of ZYMAXID® may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, discontinue use and institute alternative therapy. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, examine the patient with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and where appropriate, fluorescein staining.

Corneal Endothelial Cell Injury
ZYMAXID® is for topical ophthalmic use. ZYMAXID® may cause corneal endothelial cell injury if introduced directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.

Adverse Reactions
In clinical studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis treated with ZYMAXID® (N=717), the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 1 % of patients were: worsening of the conjunctivitis, eye irritation, dysgeusia, and eye pain.

Please click here for full Prescribing Information.